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  • 성주출장안마★출장부르는법£성주국산 마사지【성주광명사거리 안마방】ⓔ(성주신원동 마사지)∷성주해운대 안마방↴성주여성전용 마사지 구인✐성주여관 콜☺성주안마방 nf 뜻═성주답십리 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    창원출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    성주출장안마☻예약금없는출장샵♟성주국산 마사지【성주사타구니 마사지】╄(성주화성 안마방)╧성주출장 마사지 썰━성주블라디보스톡 마사지﹌성주마사지 섹스♂성주신주쿠 마사지◈성주압구정 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 함평안마방 에이즈 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    성주출장안마➹출장부르는법♐성주국산 마사지【성주출장아가씨】┛(성주군자역 안마방)▒성주흉쇄유돌근 마사지╋성주50대 안마방↰성주목동 마사지ヨ성주하남 안마방╪성주마사지 모음

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    성주출장안마☠예약금없는출장샵╠ 성주국산 마사지【성주부산 모텔 아가씨】↛(성주강서 안마방)ε성주세종시 안마방⇪성주서초 마사지ⓔ성주고양이 마사지┵성주안마방 빨리싸면ノ성주아가씨 썰

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 광주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    성주출장안마ミ예약금없는출장샵♧성주국산 마사지【성주일산 여관】ヘ(성주지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지)☺성주대전 마사지 후기↣성주광대뼈 축소 마사지⇃성주신포동 마사지┯성주안마방 vip☭성주강아지 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 증평태백 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    성주출장안마◣출장부르는법╓성주국산 마사지【성주장안동 마사지】◊(성주누드 마사지)♦성주태국 마사지 야동╓성주언양 마사지.성주뒷목 마사지┏성주만남0성주카톡

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    성주출장안마성주편두통 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    성주출장안마✕예약┘성주국산 마사지【성주단발 안마방】☞(성주긴장성 두통 마사지)↪성주부산 출장 서비스☚ 성주시흥 안마방◇성주fc2 남친 마사지☃성주대구 모텔 추천♢성주연예인 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 수원전립선 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    수원출장안마
    군포마사지 배우기 부산출장안마 하남홈 타이 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 천안출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    성주출장안마◊예약금없는출장샵1성주국산 마사지【성주셀프 어깨 마사지】➢(성주변비 마사지)☠성주의정부 안마방 추천☈성주태국 전립선 마사지➻성주주안 마사지↕성주서울역 마사지ღ성주마사지 토렌토

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 보령중국 마사지 가격 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    성주출장안마”예약☪성주국산 마사지【성주충북혁신도시 마사지】↿(성주포르치오 마사지)↮성주여관 녀◑성주마사지방웃성주라페 안마방τ성주구리 안마방❤성주타이 마사지 썰

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장샵 .

    이천수원 안마방
    고성평택 안마방 카지노사이트 남양주fc 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    성주출장안마⇏출장부르는법♦성주국산 마사지【성주오피걸】▶(성주신데렐라 안마방)►성주건식 마사지⇪성주화정 마사지➻성주조루 안마방↕성주팔자주름 마사지▒성주울산 삼산 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 창원출장샵 .

    성주출장안마╅예약금없는출장샵φ성주국산 마사지【성주부산 모텔 촌】♨(성주남성전용)✔성주fc2 마사지ル성주동대구 모텔フ성주일본마사지╌성주양산 안마방♟성주마사지 일본

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 진주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 산청용원 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    성주출장안마⇤예약★성주국산 마사지【성주연산동 마사지】┖(성주동탄 마사지)━성주아로마마사지 꿀팁═성주엄지 눈 근육 마사지╟성주레즈 마사지♂성주포항 마사지☎성주음부 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    성주출장안마◈예약┎성주국산 마사지【성주콜걸】☀(성주김연아 안마방)⇞성주천안 출장⇩성주옥계 마사지☵성주부산역 모텔 가격♛성주광진구 안마방⇩성주영통 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 양양국노 토렌트 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 구미출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 구미태국 전통 마사지 단속 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 진주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    성주출장안마┢24시출장샵╓성주국산 마사지【성주두정동 안마방】┢(성주안성 마사지)♪성주마석 안마방♘성주안마방 무한샷░성주박시연 마사지◑성주부산역 모텔 가격↺성주출장가격

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 창원출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 전주출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    성주출장안마┗24시출장샵»성주국산 마사지【성주부산역 마사지】♪ (성주피파 안마방)♂성주해외 안마방▄성주금호동 안마방ε성주림프 마사지 금기 사항┍성주대구 콜▧성주청주 안마방 가격

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부산머리 마사지
    전주출장안마 원주캄보디아 마사지 광주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    성주출장안마┷출장부르는법テ성주국산 마사지【성주마사지 망가】↾(성주지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지)┰성주홍대 안마방✐성주서양 마사지 fc2☛성주피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지╆성주동탄 안마방↼성주안마방 전화기록

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.성주출장안마성주fc2 남친 마사지╧성주서귀포 안마방⇜(성주피로회복 마사지)성주안마방 중독♮성주사상구 마사지✲성주고관절 마사지↕성주안마방 나이»온라인카지노예약금없는출장샵성주와이프 마사지”성주안마방 대물↮<성주에로 마사지>성주창동 마사지⊙성주가산 안마방┺성주노모 마사지╪성주안마방 몰카 torrent™성주출장안마남양주고추 마사지성주수원 마사지 추천┻성주출장가격☭〖성주상주 안마방〗성주수원 마사지™성주신림동 안마방◎성주암사동 마사지↛성주서양 마사지 토렌트ρ성주강남 안마방 내상┃성주코 마사지 전후♩{성주베이징 안마방}성주남성전용╚성주여의도 마사지↗성주lovegom┭성주광주 모텔 추천⇙성주송도 안마방▥성주막탄 마사지⇪{성주아마 시안}성주마사지 트위터┯성주슈얼 마사지↞성주안마방 교복◎성주이영학 안마방╬ 성주정읍 안마방☠성주공항신도시 마사지큐「성주안마방 청소년」성주만짜이 마사지♪성주상암동 안마방セ성주안마방 후장”성주눈 커지는 마사지┯24시출장샵양평제주시 안마방24시출장샵성주러시아 밤문화╖성주마사지 흥분☇﹝성주동탄 마사지﹞성주다낭 에덴 마사지⇠성주안마방☯성주흉부 마사지★성주동해 마사지┟성주출장안마성주출장안마창원출장샵성주nhdta 마사지성주안마방 bj성주포항 안마방성주안마방 출장성주출장안마성주출장코스가격┿성주속초 모텔 가격ニ{성주마사지 효능}성주타이 안마방⇛성주안마방 서울⇞성주여관 콜♀성주얼굴 마사지 기계☍김포미금역 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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